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Postgraduate Programmes

National Universities Commission (NUC) as a regulatory agency of Universities Education in Nigeria has risen to the challenges of the statute governing its quality assurance mandate. After successfully establishment the BMAS for the undergraduate programmes and subsequently the accreditation of all such programmes, NUC embarked on the recently concluded accreditation of the postgraduate programmes in Management Sciences. The success of that exercise now serves as motivation for development of BMAS for all Postgraduate Programmes in Sciences of the Nigerian Universities

The BMAS developed will serve as the foundation for the accreditation of all postgraduate Programmes in the Sciences in Nigerian Universities.

At the postgraduate level, the Department officers course leading to the award of Masters (M.Sc.) and Doctoral degrees (Ph.D.) in Plant Biology. In addition, the Department also, offers M.Phil degree and Postgraduate Diploma in Plant Biology (PGDPB) programmes.

 

MASTERS DEGREE PROGRAMME IN PLANT BIOLOGY

  1. List of Teaching Staff

S/No.

Name

Status and Qualification

Research Interest(s)

1

A. A. Abdulrahaman

Reader and Acting Head

B.Sc., M.Sc., Ph.D. (Ilorin)

Plant Anatomy and Taxonomy

2

E. O. Etejere

Professor

B.Sc., Ph.D. (Ibadan), MBA (Ilorin)

Plant Physiology and Biochemistry

3

J. A. Morakinyo

Professor

B.Sc., M.Sc., Ph.D. (OAU)

Applied Genetics and Plant Breeding

4

P. O. Fatoba

Professor

B.Sc., M.Sc., Ph.D. (OAU)

Bryology and Environmental Biology

5

O. T. Mustapha

Professor

B.Sc., M.Sc., Ph.D. (Ilorin), MBA (BUK)

Biosystematics and Cytogenetics

6

K. S. Olorunmaiye

Senior Lecturer

B.Sc. (Ilorin), M.Sc. (Ibadan), Ph.D., PGDE (Ilorin)

Plant Physiology and Biochemistry

7

C. O. Ogunkunle

Lecturer II

B.Sc. (Ilorin), M. Sc. (OAU), Ph.D. (Ilorin)

Environmental Biology

8

B. U. Olayinka

Lecturer II

B.Sc., M.Sc., Ph.D., PGDE (Ilorin)

Plant Physiology and Biochemistry

9

K. A. AbdulKareem

Lecturer II

B.Sc. (Sokoto), M.Sc., Ph.D. (Ilorin)

Biosystematics and Cytogenetics

10

D. A. Animasaun

B.Sc., M.Sc., Ph.D. (Ilorin)

Genetics and Molecular Biology

11

S. Oyedeji

Lecturer II

B.Sc. (Benin), M.Sc., Ph.D. (OAU)

Plant Ecology

12

A. A. Lateef

Lecturer II

B. Sc. (Minna), Ph.D. (Malaysia)

Plant Pathology, Plant Mycology and Molecular Phylogenetics

 

  1. Introduction

The Department of Plant Biology offers M.Sc. degree in Plant Biology. Master degree in the Department is in a wide range of botanical specialties, with emphasis placed on tropical botany and conservation. Major research areas include Applied Genetics and Plant Breeding, Biotechnology, Bryology, Cytogenetics and Biosystemtaics, Cytogenetics and Plant Breeding, Environmental Botany, Ethnobotany, Plant Anatomy and Wood Technology, Plant Ecophysiology, Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Plant Pathology and Plant Taxonomy.

Ilorin, the location of the University of Ilorin and indeed Nigeria provide an outstanding location for many types of botanical studies. The rich endemic flora provides unique opportunities for studies of evolution, conservation biology, and alien plant invasions. Similarly, a mixture of local cultures and our proximity to other vegetations allow studies of plants in a human context. Research studies are not limited to Ilorin and Nigeria. Academic staff and students have research projects in many areas throughout the world.

  1. Philosophy of the programme

The philosophy of the programme includes:

  1. Production of graduates for the postgraduate programmes with enough knowledge that will make them to be good materials for lecturing at the tertiary institutions and research institutes.
  2. Produce graduate that will be able to compete favourably with graduates of other universities based on their scientific research and their contributions to national development.
  3. Prepare our graduates to be job creators rather than job seekers.
  1. Aim and Objectives

The aim is to prepare students for higher degree in Plant Biology (M.Sc.).

The major objective of this programme is to teach and train graduate students in different areas of Plant Biology.

  1. Admission Requirements
  1. Graduates of the University of Ilorin who have obtained First Class Honours Division.
  2. First Class and Second Class Divisions of University of Ilorin who must have obtained a minimum of 55% in Qualifying Examinations organized by the University of Ilorin.
  3. Holders of Postgraduate Degree in Plant Biology (PGDPB) or other relevant fields of university of Ilorin and other Universities who have not scored less than 60% (i.e. Credit level).
  4. In addition, candidates must have a minimum of credit passes in 5 subjects: Biology, Chemistry, Physics, Mathematics and English Language at SSCE and GCE (from WAEC, NECO and NABTEB) in not more than two sittings.
  1. Duration of the Programme

Master degree programme is run for a minimum of three semesters (18 months). On the expiration of the maximum duration, a candidate may apply for extension of not more than two consecutive semesters of 12 calendar months after which the programme lapses. 

  1. Detailed Course Description

Compulsory courses

SCI 801           Scientific Research Methodology                                                       2 Credits

SCI 802           Management and Entrepreneurship                                                    2 Credits

PLB 801          Graduate Seminar                                                                               2 Credits

PLB 802          Evolution, Morphology and Diversity of Major Plant Groups           3 Credits

PLB 803          Field Studies and Nigerian Flora                                                        3 Credits

PLB 804          Science, Environment and Innovations                                              3 Credits

PLB 805          Plant Breeding                                                                                                3 Credits

PLB 840          Research Project                                                                                 6 Credits

 

M. Sc. Options in Plant Biology

1. Applied Genetics and Plant Breeding Option

Required Courses

PGB 801         Applied Genetics                                                                                3 Credits

PGB 802         Principles of Plant Breeding                                                               3 Credits

PGB 803         Quantitative Genetics                                                                         3 Credits

Optional Courses

PBT 802          Bioinformatics                                                                                                3 Credits

PGB 804         Plant Genetics Resource Management and Utilization                      3 Credits PGB 805     Plant Molecular Genetics                                                                 3 Credits PGB 806     Biological Techniques                                                             3 Credits

2. Biotechnology Option

Required Courses

PBT 801          Bioinformatics                                                                                                3 Credits

PBT 802          Genetic Engineering                                                                           3 Credits

PBT 803          Plant Biotechnology                                                                           3 Credits

Optional Courses

PBT 804          Biotechnology Processing                                                                   2 Credits

PBT 805          Biotechnology in Food Processing                                                     2 Credits

PBT 806          Animal Biotechnology                                                                        2 Credits

PBT 807          Medical Biotechnology                                                                       2 Credits

3. Bryology Option

Required Courses

PBR 801         Evolution, Morphology and Taxonomy of Bryophytes                      3 Credits

PBR 802         Bryophyte Physiology                                                                                    3 Credits

PBR 803         Bryophyte Ecology                                                                             3 Credits

Optional Courses

PEB 804        Atmospheric Pollution and the Vegetation                                          3 Credits

PEB 805        Ecosystem Pollution Ecology                                                               3 Credits

PEB 806        Waste Management                                                                              3 Credits

PEB 807          Phytoremediation                                                                               3 Credits               

PEB 808         Land Degradation and Restoration                                                     3 Credits   

4. Cytogenetics and Biosystematics Option

Required Courses    

PCB 801         Principles of Biosystematics                                                               3 Credits PCB 802      Applied Cytogenetics                                                                           3 Credits PCB 803      Advanced Cytogenetics                                                                     3 Credits

Optional Courses

PCB 804         Chemotaxonomy and Serology                                                          3 Credits

PCB 805         Cytogenetics, Evolution and Phylogeny                                            3 Credits

PCB 806         Evolutionary Mechanism                                                                    3 Credits

PCB 807         Cytotaxonomy Research Methods                                                     3 Credits

  1. Cytogenetics and Plant Breeding Option

Required Courses

PCP 801          Methods in Plant Breeding                                                                 3 Credits

PGB 802         Principles of Plant Breeding                                                               3 Credits

PCB 803         Advanced Cytogenetics                                                                     3 Credits

Optional Courses

PBT 803          Bioinformatics                                                                                                3 Credits

PCP 802          Plant Molecular Genetics                                                                    3 Credits

PCP 803          Radiation Genetics in Plant                                                                3 Credits

6. Environmental Botany Option

Required Courses

PEB 801        Techniques in Plant Ecology                                                                3 Credits

PEB 802       Physiological Plant Ecology                                                                 3 Credits

PEB 803      Environmental Impact and Audit Assessment and the Environment   3 Credits

Optional Courses

PEB 804         Atmospheric Pollution and the Vegetation                                        3 Credits

PEB 805          Ecosystem Pollution Ecology                                                             3 Credits

PEB 806          Waste Management                                                                            3 Credits

PEB 807          Phytoremediation                                                                                3 Credits               

PEB 808          Land Degradation and Restoration                                                    3 Credits   

7. Ethnomedicine Option

Required Courses

PEM 801         Herbal Medicinal Practice: Philosophy Policy and Ethics                  3 Credits

PEM 802         Medicinal Mycologv                                                                           3 Credits

PEM 803         Herbal Clinical Internship                                                                   4 Credits

Option Courses

PBT 802          Bioinformatics                                                                                                3 Credits

PEM 804         Advanced Plant Systematics                                                              3 Credits

PEM 805         Herbal Materia Medica                                                                       3 Credits

PEM 806         Introductory Pharmacology                                                                3 Credits

PEM 807         Ethnobotany, Nutrition and Health                                                   3 Credits

8. Plant Anatomy and Wood Technology Option

Required Courses    

PAW 801        Internal Organization of the Plant Body                                            3 Credits

PAW 802        Pulp and Paper Making                                                                       3 Credits

PAW 803        Wood Anatomy and Utilization                                                         3 Credits

Optional Courses

PPT 801          Taxonomic Data Processing and Presentation                                    3 Credits

PAW 804        Seed Anatomy and Utilization                                                           3 Credits

PAW 805        Plant Epidermis                                                                                   3 Credits

PAW 806        Reproductive Morphology of Angiosperms                                       3 Credits

PAW 807        Reproductive Morphology of Gymnosperms                                     3 Credits

PAW 808        Developmental Plant Anatomy                                                           3 Credits

PAW 809        Advanced Plant Anatomy                                                                  3 Credits

PAW 810        Tissues in Water Purification                                                              3 Credits

PAW 811        Nutritive Tissues in Tubers                                                                 3 Credits

PAW 812        Wood Boards, Chips and Veneers                                                     3 Credits

PAW 813        Cellulose in Gums and Mucilages                                                       3 Credits

 

9. Plant Ecophysiology Option

Required Courses

PEB 801          Techniques in Plant Ecology                                                               3 Credits

PEB 802          Physiological Plant Ecology                                                               3 Credits

PEB 803          Environmental Impact and Audit Assessment and the Environment            3 Credits

Optional Courses

PPP 801          Growth and Developmental Physiology in Plants                              3 Credits

PEC 801          Plant Growth Regulation Substances                                                             3 Credits

PEB 805          Ecosystem Pollution Ecology                                                             3 Credits

PEC 802          Air Pollution and Plant degradation                                                   3 Credits

PEC 803          Plant Adaptation and Acclimation Mechanisms                                3 Credits

 

10. Plant Pathology Option

Required Courses

PPA 801          Advance Techniques in Plant Pathology                                            3 Credits

PPA 802          Plant Virology and Phytobacteriology                                               3 Credits

PPA 803          Physiology of Diseased Plants                                                            3 Credits

Option Courses

PPA 804          Microbial Taxonomy                                                                           3 Credits

PPA 805          Pathogenic Mycology                                                                         3 Credits

PPA 806          Plant Nematology                                                                               3 Credits

PPA 807          Pathology of Stored Products                                                            3 Credits

PPA 808          Microbial Diseases of Economic Crops                                              3 Credits

PPA 809          Control of Plant Diseases                                                                   3 Credits

11. Plant Physiology Option

Required Courses

PPP 801          Growth and Developmental Physiology in plants                              3 Credits

PPP 802          Advanced Physiology and Metabolism                                              3 Credits

PPP 803          Nutrient Metabolism in Plant                                                              3 Credits

Optional Courses

PPP 804          Plant Growth Regulatory Substances                                                 3 Credits

PPP 805          Biological Techniques                                                             3 Credits

PPP 806          Plant Water Relation                                                                           3 Credits

PPP 807          Enzymology                                                                                        3 Credits

12. Plant Taxonomy Option

Required Courses

PPT 801          Taxonomic Data Processing and Presentation                                    3 Credits

PPT 802          Taxonomic Characters                                                                        3 Credits

PPT 803          Practice of Plant Taxonomy                                                                3 Credits

Optional Courses

PPT 804          Palynology                                                                                          3 Credits

PPT 805          Ferns and Gymnosperms                                                                    3 Credits

PPT 806          Advanced Herbarium Studies                                                             3 Credits

PPT 807          Principles and Procedures of Plant Taxonomy                                   3 Credits

PPT 808          Conservation of the Nigerian Flora                                                    3 Credits

PPT 809          Plants in Urban Landscape                                                                 3 Credits

PPT 810          Taxonomic Structure of Botanical Gardens                                       3 Credits

PPT 811          Floristic Variations in Wild Fruits                                                      3 Credits

PPT 812          The Palms                                                                                            3 Credits

 

Synopsis for Courses in M.Sc. Plant Biology

SCI 801          Scientific Research Methodology                                                     2 Credits

            Principles of scientific research, data collection, processing and analyses. Statistical           packages. Precision and accuracy of estimates. Hypothesis formulation and testing.       Organization of research. Report writing and presentation. Research ethics and       grants.

            30h. (T); R

 

SCI 802          Management and Entrepreneurship                                               2 Credits

            Feasibility studies, business environment, general management, financial     management, entrepreneurship development, feasibility studies, marketing and        managerial problem solving.

            30h. (T); R

PLB 801         Graduate Seminar                                                                                        2 Credits

            A candidate for the M.Sc. degree will be required to present a seminar on a topic   selected from within the study area before the Department Postgraduate        Committee. The performance of a candidate shall be evaluated for the award of          marks by a panel selected by the Departmental Postgraduate Committee.

            Apart from the oral presentation, the seminar shall be typewritten, soft-bound and             submitted to earn credit.

            15h (T), 45h (P); C

PLB 802         Evolution, Morphology and Diversity of Major Plant Groups     3 Credits

          Origin and evolutionary trends of plants: multicellular green algae and mosses as           aquatic ancestors. Unicellularity to multicellularity, aquatic to terrestrial life;           features of first terrestrial plants.  Evolution of higher plants (reticulate           evolution) and their diversity. Concepts of flowers and seeds (evolution and           diversity).  Ecological importance of species diversity.

          30h (T), 45h (P); C

PLB 803     Field Studies and Nigerian flora                                                          3 Credits

          Field investigation into the taxonomy and ecology of major groups of plants.               The major biomes of Nigeria:  features and their indicator species. Threatened           and endangered species in Nigeria. Invasive plants: types and features.           Conservation of the Nigerian flora.

          30h (T), 45h (P); C

PLB 804       Science, Environment and Innovations                                             3 Credits

          Decline of ecosystem: causes and effects. Biodiversity, pollution, global warming              and other environmental issues. Implications of different environmental issues.           Species at risk and risk assessment. Social and ethical implications of science,           enterprise and productivity. Intellectual property rights. Private, public           partnership and investment.

          30h (T), 45h (P); C

PLB 805       Plant Breeding                                                                                     3 Credits  

            Goals of Plant breeding, Plant introduction and germplasm collections. Centres of             Genetic diversity and origin of cultivated plants. Genetic basis of selection: Pure line             Theory, and polyploidy and their significance in plant breeding. Uses of anueploids in             plant breeding. Breeding methods for self and cross fertilized crop species. Backcross       breeding, mutation, resistance breeding for diseases, pests and drought. Quality            breeding, seed testing and certification. Cell fusion and anther culture in plant       breeding. Crop domestication and utilization in medicine.

      30h (T), 45h (P); C

1. Applied Genetics and Plant Breeding Option

Required Courses

PGB 801         Applied Genetics                                                                               3 Credits

            Chemistry of the gene. Radiation genetics and applications of radiation biology in             generating mutations and origins of new taxa. Developmental genetics and variable     gene activity. Immunogenetics. Genetics control of plant diseases and pests.                30h (T); 45h (P); R

PGB 802         Principles of Plant Breeding                                                   3 Credits

Aim of plant breeding. Reproductive biology of higher plants. Methods of vegetative propagation, physicochemical factors of the environment and their effects on successful plant breeding. Population types and plant breeding. Apomixes, inbreeding, incompatibility, sexual sterility and artificial breeding. Chromosomal manipulation and plant breeding.                                                                   

30h (T); 45h (P); R

PGB 803         Quantitative Genetics                                                                        3  Credits

            Genetic constitution of a population, continuous variation. Biometrical genetics;    values, means, variances and covariances, scales, variance components; Heritability.   Selection; In breeding and cross breeding; correlated characters; interaction of         genotypes and environment; Experimental design and data analysis.                                    30h (T); 45h (P); R

PGB 804         Plant Genetics Resources Management and Utilization                3 Credits

Management of genetic resources data. Indigenous management of plant genetic resources. Plant genetic resources characterization and evaluation. Sampling and conservation strategies. In situ and ex situ conservation. In vitro storage of genetic materials. Reserves, protected areas and botanic gardens. Plant genetic resources in Agriculture and Biotechnology.                                                                                            30h (T); 45h (P); O

PGB 805         Plant Molecular Genetics                                                                 3 Credits

Plant genomes; Episomes, Plasmids and Transposons. Agrobacterium tumefaciens; Symbiotic Nitrogen Fixation; Tissue-specific expression of plant genes; Molecular Biology of disease and pests resistance. Restriction enzymes and Ligases; DNA cloning; Ploymerase Chain Reaction. Bioinformatics. Plant growth regulators and tissue culture.                 

30h (T); 45h (P); O

PGB 806         Biological Techniques                                                              3 Credits

            Phytochemical methods: Electrophoresis, chromatography, anatomical and             histological techniques. To demonstrate chemical processes involved in variety of          biologically important processes e.g, photosynthesis, mitochondrial respiration,       nitrogen fixation and carbon transfer etc.                                                                               30h (T); 45h (P); O

2. Biotechnology Option

PBT 801         Bioinformatics                                                                                   3 Credits

Sequency retrieval and analysis, bioalgorithms, biological databases and their search, sequency alignment and construction of polygenetic trees, Gene predictions, RNA and protein structure prediction, Use of bioinformatics tools in biotechnology biopharma.

            30h (T); 45h (P); O                                                     

PBT 802         Genetic Engineering                                                                         3 Credits

Definition. Aims of genetic engineering. Nucleic acid structure and function. Genomic structure: genes,exons and introns. Cloning and gene therapy. Analysis of Specific genes and genomes. Mutagenesis and DNA repair. Transgenesis. Use of antisense technology, Terminator technology. Production of recommbinat proteins(recombinant hormones, enzymes, vaccines etc). Genetically modified plants and animals. Gene pharming.  

           15h (T); 45h (P); R

PBT 803         Plant Biotechnology                                                                            3 Credits

Plant tissue culture and applications. Micropropagations, somatic embryogenesis, somaclonal variations. Chemicals and plants interactions. Application of genetic engineering in crop improvement; herbicide resistance, insect resistance, environmental tolerance, virus resistance and agricultural food production.   

            30h (T); 45h (P); R

PBT 804         Biotechnology Processing                                                                 2 Credits

            Data analysis: Linear and non-linear models. Mass balance. Species mass. Microbial           and cellular growth stoichiometry. Product formation, reductase balance and yield         maintenance. Energy balance. Reaction kinetics and biological systems. Chemostat,    batch fermentors, immobilized enzymes and cells. Filtration and centrifugation and      chromatography.

            15h (T); 45h (P); O

PBT 805         Biotechnology in Food Processing                                                   2 Credits

            Quality and storage of specific foods.Functional foods. Microbial influence on food          production and storage. Quality assurance in the industry. Biotechnology targets in             food processing. Improving food quality. Genetically enginnered enzymes and             additives in foods optimization of food processing methods. Microbial biomass and    indigenous fermented food.

            15h (T); 45h (P); O

PBT 806         Animal Biotechnology                                                                       2 Credits

Gene transfer methods in animal production. Mcroinjection,embryonic stem cell. Transgenic animal models. Animal diseases and gene therapy. Animal propagation through artificial insemination and cloning. Dolly the sheep. Embro transfer. Regulation of transgenic animal production. Genetically engineered animals. Protein      engineering from the live animals. Risk assessment of biotechnology in animal.

15h (T); 45h (P); O

 

PBT 807            Medical Biotechnology                                                                   2 Credits

Gene therapy and gene delivery methods. Immunoenhancing technology. Nucleic acid vaccines. Therapeutic ribozymes. Synthentic drugs. Tissue engineering with reference to skin, liver and pancreas. Xenotransplantation. Antibody engineering. Cell-adhession based therapy, Drug delivery.

15h (T); 45h (P); O 

3. Bryology Option                           

PBR 801         Evolution, Morphology and Taxonomy of Bryophytes                   3 Credits 

Origin and evolution of bryophytes.Vegetative and reproductive structures of bryophytes. Classification and interrelationship

           30h (T), 45h (P); R

PBR 802         Bryophyte Physiology                                                                      3 Credits                                                              

            Mechanisms of growth, development and maintenance of communities.      Procurement, utilization and conservation of water and nutrients in           bryophytes.Sources and transport of water and nutrients. Effects of water   stress and        desiccation. Reproduction and development of sporophytes.               

            30h (T), 45h (P); R

PBR 803         Bryophyte  Ecology                                                                          3 Credits

            Ecological distribution of bryophytes. Bases for occurrence and success on the             different substrates/phorophytes. Survival strategies of  bryophytes to water             stress and desiccation. Ecological roles of bryophytes in the environment.

            30h (T), 45h (P); R

  1. Cytogenetics and Biosystematics Option

PCB 801         Principle of Biosystematics                                                               3 Credits

            Taxonomy and biosystematics of evolutionary dynamics. The species problems and           the concepts of the species and intra-specific taxa. Methods in biosystematics.   Evolution and plant geography.

            30h (T), 45h (P); R

PCB 802         Applied Cytogenetics                                                                        3 Credits

            Aims, basis and methods of experimental breeding. Chromosome manipulation in plant breeding, use of aneuploidy in plant breeding; interspecific hybridization,      induced polyploidy. Sterility mechanism. Breeding for disease and insect pest            resistance.

            30h (T), 45h (P); R

PCB 803         Advanced Cytogenetics                                                                    3 Credits

            In depth study of evolution of genophores chromosome structure and function.     Karyotype evolution. Structural changes in chromosomes duplication and deficiency,       inversion etc. The study of lethal system. Polyploid types, characteristic and     evolutionary significance. Induction of autopolyploidy and alloploid current issues in           advanced cytogenetics.

            30h (T), 45h (P); R

PCB 804         Chemotaxonomy and Serology                                                        3 Credits

Methods of chemotaxonomy. Chemical constituents as comparative data of taxonomy. Evolutionary interpretation of comparative data of taxonomy.  Evolutionary interpretation of comparative data on chemical constituents. Serological test  and genetic relationship of protein systems. Phytochemistry.        

30h (T); 45h (P); O

PCB 805         Cytogenetics Evolution and Phylogeny                                    3 Credits

            Chromosomal organization in relation to gene environment, genetic recombination             in population , the use of genetics  system in evolution, the origin of species     hybridization its origin and its significance polyploidy occurrence, distribution and its           importance.      

            30h (T); 45h (P); O

PCB 806         Evolutionary Mechanisms                                                                3 Credits

The synthetic theory of evolution and its development. The sources of variability. The nature of mutation, its causes and adaptiveness. The organization of genetic variability. The differentiation of population. Reproductive isolation and origin of species. The role of hybridization and polyploidy in evolution. Major trend of evolution. Current issues in evolution.                                                                     

30h (T); 45h (P); O

PCB 807         Cytotaxonomy Research Methods                                          3 Credits

Identification of genetic systems;   Collection of cytological data, for taxonomic treatment; Taxonomic evaluation of cytological data. Morphological and karyotypic polymorphisms; Analysis, determination and taxonomic problems of polytypic taxa.

30h (T); 45h (P); O

  1. Cytogenetics and Plant Breeding option

PCP 801         Methods in Plant Breeding                                                      3 Credits

            Plant introduction and the origin of cultivated crops. Conservation of germplasm. Application of population and quantitative genetics of plant breeding. Methods of       breeding self-pollinated , cross-pollinated breeding vegetatively propagated and   apomictic plants. Mutation breeding. Plant tissue culture and transformation             techniques.                                                                                                                              30h (T); 45h (P); O

PCP 802         Plant Molecular Genetics                                                                 3 Credits

            Plant genomes; Episomes, Plasmids and Transposons. Agrobacterium tumefaciens;            Symbiotic nitrogen fixation; tissue-specific expression of plant genes; molecular            Biology of disease and pest resistance. Restriction enzymes and Ligases; DNA         cloning; polymerase chain reaction. Bioinformatics. Plant growth regulators and             tissue culture.

            30h (T); 45h (P); O

PCP 803         Radiation  Genetics in Plants                                                          3 Credits

            Comparison of spontaneous and induced mutations. Mutation, selection and          population fitness. Types of ionizing radiation and their cytogenetic effects.    Comparison of radiation and chemical mutagenic effects. Effects of pre-irradiation        and post-irradiation.  Factors modifying irradiation of successive generations.             Spontaneous and induced mutations in vegetatively propagated species. Methods of         utilizing induced mutations in crop improvement and propagation.                             

            30h (T); 45h (P); O

  1. Environmental Botany Option

PEB 801         Techniques in Plant Ecology                                                            3 Credits

            Plant sampling techniques in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Parameters of             forest measuration. Data collection, cleaning, coding and information retrieval.             Corellation and regression analyses. Classification: clustering, ordination and             Principal Component Analysis, Ecosystem modelling and system’s approach to             ecological problems.

             30h (T), 45h (P); R

PEB 802          Physiological Plant Ecology                                                              3 Credits

               Ecosystem functioning. Plants and environment interactions. Productivity and                environmental stress. Water relations. Water and plant balance. Water stress:                     causes and effects. Adaptive  strategies to different water regimes. Nutrients                cycles                                         

               30h (T), 45h (P); R

PEB 803   Environmental Impact and Audit Assessment and the Environment 3 Credits

            Concepts of EIA. Principles and  procedures of EIA. Resources required for EIA.             Identification of monitoring and mitigating measures. Concept of             biomonitoring of environmental pollution.

            30h (T), 45h (P); R

PEB 804        Atmospheric Pollution and the Vegetation                                      3 Credits

            Air pollution essentials. Major air pollutants and their sources. Atmospheric             deposition of heavy metals on vegetation. Impact of air pollutants on crops  and                  natural vegetation. Ozone layer and acid rain and their impacts on vegetation.             Consequences of air pollution for biodiversity. Wetland conservation              (Government policy).                 

            30h (T), 45h (P); O

PEB 805          Ecosystem Pollution Ecology                                                             3 Credits

            Environmental pollution: sources and control. Major pollutants: oil and             petrochemical (fossil fuels), heavy metals, solid and hazardous wastes and their             impacts on the ecosystem. Radiation and plants’ life.                  

            30h (T), 45h (P); O

PEB 806         Waste Management                                                                          3 Credits

           Types of wastes, disposal and recovery solution. Pollution policy and waste            management. Hazardous chemical pollution and prevention. Toxicity and            chemical hazards. Waste disposal and clean up. Management of toxic chemicals and            waste. Wastewater treatment and management, impact and prevention. Pollution             policy and waste pollution.                  

            30h (T), 45h (P); O

PEB 807         Phytoremediation                                                                              3 Credits               

            Phytoremediation: metal bioavailability and hyper accumulators. Types of             phytoremediation: phytoextraction; phytovolatilization; phytostabilization;             phytodegradation etc. Soil improvement with plants to degrade/remove pollutants.

            30h (T), 45h (P); O

PEB 808            Land Degradation and Restoration                                             3 Credits   

            Land degradation: causes, effects and control. Forest decline and soil             acidification. Land restoration and reclamation. Afforestation and reforestation       practices. Ecological succession, energy and nutrient dynamics of         climax communities.

            30h (T), 45h (P); O

  1. Ethnomedicine Option

PEM 801        Herbal Medicinal Practice: Philosophy Policy and Ethics             3 Credits

            History of Herbal Medicine, the whole person and homeostasis, vitalism,             health and disease, essentials of health, rational therapy, herbal approach to             treatment, pain and its rational treatment, micro-organisms and disease, the             germ theory, poisonous and safe medicines. The Herbal Practitioner and the             Law, Supply of Remedies. Code of Ethics and Rules of Practice in relation to             biodiversity prospecting and conservation on medicinal plants.

            30h (T), 45h (P); R

PEM 802        Medicinal Mycology                                                                          3 Credits

            Basic structure and biology or fungi. Systematic surveyor fungi with medicinal      properties. Fungi as sources of antibiotics. Medicinal and food value of mushrooms.      Historical, folklore of fungi. Hallucinogen mushroom in primitive culture. Ergots of       rye and ergotism in humans and animals. Biopharmaceutins of fungal origin. Industrial uses of fungi.

              30h (T), 45h (P); R

PEM 803              Herbal Clinical Internship                                                          4 Credits

            Clinical training to enable the students to combine and take thorough case             histories, follow up consultations. Learn examination techniques, formulate and             dispense herbal remedies. Eight weeks of clinical supervised by Clinic    practitioners.

            45h (T), 90h (P); R

PEM 804        Advanced Plant Systematics                                                            3 Credits

             A survey of floral morphology in relation to classification and evolution,              chromosome numbers, polyploidy and their role in taxonomy. Flow cytometry              as a taxonomic tool. Chemotaxonomy.                    

             30h (T), 45h (P); O

PEM 805        Herbal Materia Medica                                                                     3 Credits

             Remedies grouped according to primary therapeutic action: stimulants              relaxants, astringents, depuratives, demulcent, antiseptics, diuretics,              cardiovascular agents, diaphoreiics, pulmonary agents, hepatic, cholagogues,              gastro- intestinal agents and nervines.                    

             30h (T), 45h (P); O

PEM 806        Introductory Pharmacology                                                             3 Credits

             Pharmacokinetics: absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of              remedies, Basic components: acids, alcohols, carbohydrates, gums and              mucilages, phenols, tannins, coumarins, anthraquinones, flavones and              derivative, volatile oils, saponins, cardioactive and cyanogenic glycosides and              alkaloids. Remedies and their pharmacology for the urinarysystem,              cardiovascular system, digestive system, respiratory system, nervous system,                       endocrine system, reproductive system, the skin, infectious conditions and        tumours,Allopathic remedies.

            30h (T), 45h (P); O

PEM 806        Ethnobotany, Nutrition and Health                                               3 Credits

            The nature and ecological significance of food and medicinal plant             biodiversity in             traditional subsistence systems; scientific, institutional and ethical issues in      ethnobotany; evaluation, application and management or plants and indigenous            knowledge of plants to address contemporary health and nutrition             problems.

            30h (T), 45h (P); O

  1. Plant Anatomy and Wood Technology

PAW 801        Internal Organization of the Plant Body                                        3 Credits

            The concept, structure and organization of the plant meristems. Tissue        differentiation and development. Structure and distribution of the secondary tissues.

            30h. (T); 45h. (P); R

PAW 802        Pulp and Paper Making                                                                   3 Credits

            Process of pulping and manufacture of paper; laboratory tests for pulp and paper   samples; nursery and forestry operations in pulp and paper industry.

            30h. (T); 45h. (P); R

PAW 803        Wood Anatomy and Utilization                                                       3 Credits

            Structure and distribution of vessels – members, tracheids, fibres and parenchyma in         wood. Properties of wood in relation to its utilization. Traditional and modern uses    of wood.

            30h. (T); 45h. (P); O

PAW 804        Seed Anatomy and Utilization                                                         3 Credits

            Structure of the testa, endosperm, cotyledon and perisperm. Traditional and           modernized processes of seed content extraction and utilization e.g. Elaeis     guineenesis, Vitellaria paradoxa, Cola acuminata, Theobroma cacao, Zea mays,        Vigna unguiculata, Parkia biglobosa, Garcinia kola.

            30h. (T); 45h. (P); O                                             

PAW 805        Plant Epidermis                                                                                 3 Credits

            Composition and development of the epidermal layer. Structure, ontogeny and      distribution of stomata and trichomes. Nature configuration of stomata complex.     Structure and development of extrafloral nectarines.

            30h. (T); 45h. (P); R

PAW 806        Reproductive Morphology of Angiosperms                                   3 Credits

            Analysis of flower and fruit structure in angiosperms. Primitive and advanced        structures in angiosperms. Hermaphroditism; dioecism/monoecism;        heterostyly/homostyly and pollination mechanisms.

            30h. (T); 45h. (P); O

 

PAW 807        Reproductive Morphology of Gymnosperms                                 3 Credits

            Analysis of the sporophyll gymnosperms. Concept of the naked ovule and seed.    Evolution of the cone. The gymnosperm story in evolution of the seed habit.

            30h. (T); 45h. (P); O

PAW 808        Developmental Plant Anatomy                                                        3 Credits

            Processes of tissue formation in plants. Vegetative and floral meristems. Origin and           development of vegetative and reproductive parts of plants.

            30h. (T); 45h. (P); O

PAW 809        Advanced Plant Anatomy                                                                3 Credits

            The structure of the cell wall. Cambium and its activities. Types, characteristics and           structure of wood fibre, wood pulping, bullressing and its use in the industry.

            30h. (T); 45h. (P); O.

PAW 810        Tissues in Water Purification                                                           3 Credits

            Anatomical distribution of water-purifying chemicals in seeds, barks and wood of             some plants e.g. Moringa oleifera and Bridelia ferruginea. Processes of extraction    and utilization.

            30h. (T); 45h. (P); O

PAW 811        Nutritive Tissues in Tubers                                                              3 Credits

            Structure of the parenchyma and collenchymas. Anatomical distribution of food and         mineral nutrients in some Nigerian tubers e.g. Dioscorea, Colocasia and Xanthosoma.   Traditional and modern methods of processing and utilization.

            30h. (T); 45h. (P); O

PAW 812        Wood Boards, Chips and Veneers                                                  3 Credits

            Process for making chipboards, matchsticks and veneers. Wood conversion and     seasoning. Nature and control of wood biodegradation.

            30h. (T); 45h. (P); O

PAW 813        Cellulose in Gums and Mucilages                                                    3 Credits

            Anatomy of the cell wall. Molecular structure of the cellulose. Synthetic processes             for gums and mucilages. Production of marmalades and jams.

            30h. (T); 45h. (P); O

  1. Plant Ecophysiology option

PEC 801         Plant Growth Regulatory Substances                                             3 Credits

            The auxins, chemical nature and roles of auxin translocation . Gibberellins: chemical          nature an roles of Gibberellins, translocation of Gibberellins. The cytokinins: roles of the cytokinins , synthesis of cytokinins. Absicic  acid: roles of absicic acid. Vitamins. Ethylene: effects of ethylene. Other hormones like substances in plant. Mechanisms    of hormones action. Interactions among hormones. Ecological importance of          hormones actions.

            30h. (T); 45h. (P); O

PEC 802         Air Pollution and plant degradation                                               3 Credits

            Air pollution: types of pollutants. Tissues degradation. Effects of pollution, impacts of      air pollutants on crops, semi and natural vegetation.  Impacts of ozone pollution on   vegetation and atmospheric deposition of heavy metals to vegetation.  Impacts of        pollutant mixtures (e.g., ozone and nitrogen). Acid rain. Consequences of air             pollution for biodiversity, modifying influence of climate change and impact of air            pollutants on vegetation.

            30h. (T); 45h. (P); O

PEC 803         Plant Adaptation and Acclimatization Mechanism                        3 Credits

            Phenotypic plasticity and acclimation mechanisms. Physiological responses to        drought, heat, salinity and acidity. Heat shock proteins (HSPs). Secondary        metabolites and plant defense responses to a biotic stress, herbivory and pathogens.        Plant hormonal response mechanisms. Free radicals in plant stress phenomena. Anti-            oxidants in plant stress responses. Metal tolerance accumulation and the     phytochelatin response.

            30h. (T); 45h. (P); O

 

  1. Plant Pathology Option

PPA 801         Advance Techniques in Plant Pathology                                        4 Credits

            Infection processes in plants. Collection of diseased samples. Isolation of pathogens          from infected tissues. Staining procedure. Microtome techniques.  Tissue culture.              Pathogencity. Koch’s postulates. Laboratory assessment of fungicide. Inoauation        techniques for fungi,  bacteria, viruses and nematodes. Culturing of plant pathogens.             Photomicrography. Green house experimentation.                                                                 45h. (T); 45h. (P); R

PPA 802         Plant Virology and Phytobacteriology                                            3 Credits

            Properties of plant viruses and symptoms of viral-diseases in plants. Techniques in             isolation, purification, identification and transmission of viruses. Virus replication in             plants. Control of viral-diseases. Microplasma and mollicute-like organisms.    Morphology and cultural characteristics of plant pathogenic bacteria.                                    30h. (T); 45h. (P); R

PPA 803         Physiology of Diseased Plants                                                          3 Credits

            Physiological implication of infection. Biochemical aspects of host-pathogen          relationship. Pre-existing and infection-induced biochemical defences. Mechanisms    of pathogen attack.

            30h. (T); 45h. (P); R

PPA 804         Microbial Taxonomy                                                                        3 Credits

            Classification of microbial groups such fungi bacteria and viruses

            30h. (T); 45h. (P); O

PPA 805         Pathogenic Mycology                                                                        3 Credits

            Diagnostic techniques for saprophytic and pathogenic fungi.  Physiology and         biochemistry of pathogenic fungi especially in toxin, antibioltic and enzyme             production.                                                                             

            30h. (T); 45h. (P); O

PPA 806         Plant Nematology                                                                              3 Credits

            Physiology and anatomy of nematodes. General principles of nematode taxonomy.            Host parasite relation. Economic importance of nematodes. Control principles.     Nematodes interaction with bacteria, viruses and fungi.  

            30h. (T); 45h. (P); O

PPA 807         Pathology of Stored Products                                                          3 Credits

            Origin of infection in stored products. Microorganisms associated with the spoilage           of stored products.  Effects of infection on the constituent of stored products.   Importance of stored products. Storage techniques for selected crops. Protective       measures against microbial attack and spoilage. Seed pathology – seeds as carryover             agents of pathogens. Detection and seed treatment methology.                                            15h. (T); 45h. (P); O

PPA 808         Microbial Diseases of Economic Crops                                           3 Credits

            Major microbial diseases of some economic crops eg cocoa, oil palm, rubber,          cowpea, sorghum and maize. Symptoms, etiology, transmission and control.           Economics of plant diseases                          

            30h. (T); 45h. (P); O

PPA 809         Control of Plant Diseases                                                                 3 Credits

            Cultural practices and use of chemicals.  Biological control.  Regulatory measures (quarantine certification of propagation materials).  Physical methods.  Integrated          disease management practices.          

            30h. (T); 45h. (P); O

  1. Plant Physiology Option

 

PPP 801          Growth and Development Physiology in Plant                              3 Credits

Pant growth: Effects of irradiance, light quality, temperature, duration of light on reproductive growth: seasonal and geographic aspects of photoperiodism. Long-day, and short-day plants as the basic categories. Photoperiodic induction, mechanism of photoperiodism. Rhythmic behavior of plant process. Growth and verbalization and apical dominance Cyclical periodicity abscission and mechanism of abscission. Dynamics of primary vegetative growth. Tot potency. Measures of indices of growth and rates of growth. Alternative ways of plant growth for their products for world market. Hormones in horticulture and agriculture.

30h. (T); 45h. (P); R

 

PPP 802          Advanced Physiology and Metabolism                                 3  Credits

            Energy metabolism, electron donors and acceptors and their electron potentials.     Enzymes and co enzymes and mechanism of actions. Catabolism and anabolism           pathway for proteins, lipids and carbohydrates. Nitrogen fixation and its function in     plant development. Types and distribution of proteins, lipids and carbohydrates.

            30h. (T); 45h. (P); R

PPP 803          Nutrient Metabolism in plant                                                           3 Credits

            Plant soil and water relationship. Nutrient uptake; Mechanisms and theories of       nutrient uptake; Roles of major and minor plant nutrition in plant metabolism.             Nutrient interactions and deficiency symptoms. Biofortification and genetic    improvement of plants for enhanced micronutrient content. Analytical techniques in             plant nutrition studies. Hydroponic. Techniques in radio labelling/tracer studies.

            30h. (T); 45h. (P); R

PPP 804          Plant Growth Regulatory Substances                                             3 Credits

            The auxins, chemical nature and roles of auxin translocation . Gibberellins: chemical          nature an roles of Gibberellins, translocation of Gibberellins. The cytokinins: roles of the cytokinins , synthesis of cytokinins. Absicic  acid: roles of absicic acid. Vitamins. Ethylene: effects of ethylene. Other hormones like substances in plant. Mechanisms    of hormones action. Interactions among hormones. Ecological importance of          hormones actions.

            30h. (T); 45h.(P); O

PPP 805          Biological Techniques                                                                       3 Credits                         

            Phytochemical methods; electrophoresis, chromatography, anatomical and histological techniques. To demonstrate chemical processes involved in variety of          biological importance processes e.g. photosynthesis, mitochondrial respiration,       nitrogen fixation and carbon transfer.

            30h. (T); 45h. (P); O

PPP 806          Plant Water relation                                                                         3 Credits

            The water relations to plants considered at cellular and organismal levels.    Antitranspiratnts.

            30h. (T); 45h.(P); O

PPP 807          Enzymology                                                                                       3 Credits

            Synthesis of enzymes and its regulation. Enzymes inducibility. Kinetic properties of          enzymes. Isoenzymes. Classification of enzymes in medicine, industry and research.

            30h. (T); 45h.(P); O

  1. Plant Taxonomy Option

 

PPT 801         Taxonomic Data Processing and Presentation                               3 Credits

            Collection of plants: Preparation of herbarium specimens; Preparation of     microscopic slides. Geographical and morphological methods in presentation of data, literature mapping, tabulation, symbolic and graphical methods. Identification: Keys,   comparison with named materials, nomenclature. Use of methods of numerical       taxonomy in construction of taxonomic groups. Relevance of taxonomy in plant         identification and usage.

            30h. (T); 45h. (P); R

 

PPT 802         Taxonomic Characters                                                                     3 Credits

            The nature of taxonomic characters in plants. Vegetative and reproductive morphology and anatomy. Pollen, spores and embryo. Concept of character       weighing and plant classification. Characters used in orthodox and modern            taxonomic methods.

            30h. (T); 45h. (P); R

PPT 803         Practice of Plant Taxonomy                                                             3 Credits

            The taxonomic hierarchy. Groups and categories of plants. Construction and practical        application of taxonomy keys. Field and herbarium techniques. Nomenclature.      Documentation and processing of taxonomic data. Principles of plant classification.

            30h. (T); 45h. (P); R

PPT 804         Palynology                                                                                        3 Credits

            Pollen types and variations in pollen morphology. Pollen diagrams and their           interpretation. Fossil vegetation maps. Pollen load of the atmosphere. Pollen grains          and allergy. Taxonomic analysis of pollens and relevance to petroleum industry.

            30h. (T); 45h. (P); O

PPT 805         Ferns and Gymnosperms                                                                 3 Credits

            Morphology of gymnosperms. Biology, propagation and cultivation. Use of the ferns        and gymnosperms as ornamental plants.

            30h. (T); 45h. (P); O

PPT 806         Advanced Herbarium Studies                                                          3 Credits

Relevance of herbarium to economic botany, conservation and taxonomy. Types of herbaria: purpose and facility. Preservation Techniques. Herbarium techniques and management. Seed banks and their management. Photography and ICT in herbarium practice.

            30h. (T); 45h. (P); O

PPT 807         Principles and Procedures of Plant Taxonomy                              3 Credits

            Historical background: the natural system and the value of character. Phenetic and            phylogenetic concept in taxonomy including rules and nomenclature, the categories         in taxonomy. Evolution, identification of flowering plants. Recent trends in plant         taxonomy.

            30h. (T); 45h. (P); O

PPT 808         Conservation of the Nigerian Flora                                                 3 Credits

            Nigerian vegetation: Forest and Savanna. In-situ techniques of conservation.          Management of botanical collections e.g. seed or gene banks. Alley-cropping system; shelterbelts; forest reserves and parks.

            30h. (T); 45h. (P); O

PPT 809         Plants in Urban Landscape                                                              3 Credits

            Population and distribution of plant species in towns and cities in relation to levels of        pollution. Concept of bioremediation of polluted environments. Variation in stomatal   anatomy and atmospheric humidification.

            30h. (T); 45h. (P); O

PPT 810         Taxonomic Structure of Botanical Gardens                                   3 Credits

            Taxonomic analysis of plant species in botanical gardens. Establishment and           maintenance of nurseries, ornamentals and garden landscape.

            30h. (T); 45h. (P); O

PPT 811         Floristic Variations in Wild Fruits                                                   3 Credits

            Analysis of variations in the morphology and characteristics of some wild fruits in             Nigeria – Tetracarpidium conophorum, Adansonia digitata, Vitellaria paradoxa,        Prosopis Africana, Parkia biglobosa, Dialium guineense. Casual agents of variation.          Alien and hybrid species.

            30h. (T); 45h. (P); O

PPT 812         The Palms                                                                                          3 Credits

            Morphology of the palms. Biology, propagation and cultivation. Use of the palm for          indoor and outdoor decoration.

            30h. (T); 45h. (P); O

PLB 840         Research Project                                                                               6 Credits

            A candidate for the M.Sc. degree shall undertake an independence research in the             particular field of specialization under the guidance of a supervisor appointed by the Department Postgraduate committee and approved by the Postgraduate School and     the University Senate. A report on the research project shall be submitted to the          Department. The Candidate shall be examined orally by a panel of external and     internal examiners.

            150h (P); C

 

  1. SUMMARY REQUIREMENTS FOR GRADUATION

For a candidate to be deem for graduation he/she must have satisfied the minimum credits required for the course in his/her area of specialization and must have defended the research project, and submitted a corrected version of dissertation.

  1. Applied Genetics and Plant Breeding option

Compulsory Courses:

                        PLB 801 (2); 802 (3); 803 (3); 804 (3); 805 (3); 840 (5)               = 19 Credits

Required Courses:

                        SCI 801 (2); 802 (2); PGB 801 (3); 802 (3); 803 (3);                     = 13 Credits

Option Courses:

                        PGB 804 (3); 805 (3); 806 (3); PBT 802 (3)                                   = 6 Credits

                        Offer at least 6 Credits

                                                                                                            Total   =          38 Credits

  1. Biotechnology option

Compulsory Courses:

                        PLB 801 (2); 802 (3); 803 (3); 804 (3); 805 (3); 840 (5)             = 19 Credits

Required Courses:

                        SCI 801 (2); 802 (2); PBT 801 (3); 802 (3); 803 (3)                     = 13 Credits

Option Courses:

                        PBT 804 (2); 805 (2); 806 (2); 807 (2)                                         = 6 Credits

                        Offer at least 6 Credits

                                                                                                            Total   =          38 Credits

  1. Bryology option

Compulsory Courses:

                        PLB 801 (2); 802 (3); 803 (3); 804 (3); 805 (3); 840 (5)          = 19 Credits

Required Courses:

            SCI 801 (2); 802 (2); PBR 801 (3); 802 (3); 803 (3)                  = 13 Credits

Optional Courses:

                        PEB 804 (3); 805 (3); 806 (3); 807 (3); 808 (3)                          = 6 Credits

                         Offer at least 6 Credits

                                                                                                            Total   =          38 Credits

  1. Cytogenetics and Biosystematics option

Compulsory Courses:

                        PLB 801 (2); 802 (3); 803 (3); 804 (3); 805 (3); 840 (5)               = 19 Credits

Required Courses:

                        SCI 801 (2); 802 (2); PLB 801 (3); 802 (3); 803 (3)                      = 13 Credits

Option Courses:

                        PCB 804 (3); 805 (3); 806 (3); 807 (3)                                          = 6 Credits

                        Offer at least 6 Credits

                                                                                                            Total   =          38 Credits

  1. Cytogenetics and Plant Breeding option

Compulsory Courses:

                        PLB 801 (2); 802 (3); 803 (3); 804 (3); 805 (3); 840 (5)                  = 19 Credits

Required Courses:

                        SCI 801 (2); 802 (2); PCP 801 (3); PGB 802 (3), PCB 803   (3)    = 13 Credits

Optional Courses:

                        PBT 803 (3); PCB 802 (3); 803 (3)                                                 = 6 Credits

                        Offer at least 6 Credits

                                                                                                            Total   =          38 Credits

  1. Environmental Botany option

Compulsory Courses:

                        PLB 801 (2); 802 (3); 803 (3); 804 (3); 805 (3); 840 (5)             = 19 Credits

Required Courses:

            SCI 801 (2); 802 (2); PEB 801 (3); 802 (3); 803 (3)                    = 13 Credits

Optional Courses:   

            PEB 804 (3); 805 (3); 806 (3); 807 (3); 808 (3)                          = 6 Credits

            Offer at least 6 Credits

                                                                                                Total   =          38 Credits

  1. Ethnomedicine option

Compulsory Courses:

            PLB 801 (2); 802 (3); 803 (3); 804 (3); 805 (3); 840 (5)                  = 19 Credits

Required Courses:

SCI 801 (2); 802 (2); PEM 801 (3); 802 (3); 803 (4)                          = 14 Credits

Optional Courses   

            PBT 802 (3); PEM 804 (3); 805 (3); 806 (3); 807 (3) = 6 Credits

            Offer at least 6 Credits

                                                                                                Total   =          38 Credits

  1. Plant Anatomy and Wood Technology option

Compulsory Courses:

                        PLB 801 (2); 802 (3); 803 (3); 804 (3); 805 (3); 840 (5)                 = 19 Credits

Required Courses:

            SCI 801 (2); 802 (2); PAW 801 (3); 802 (3); 803 (3)                    = 13 Credits

Optional Courses:

                        PAW 804 (3); 805 (3); PPT 801 (3); PAW 806 (3); 807 (3); 808 (3); 809 (3);                       810 (3); 811 (3); 812 (3); 813 (3)                                                   = 6 Credits

                        Offer at least 6 Credits

                                                                                                            Total   =          38 Credits

  1. Plant Ecophysiology option

Compulsory Courses:

                        PLB 801 (2); 802 (3); 803 (3); 804 (3); 805 (3); 840 (5)                  = 19 Credits

Required Courses:

            SCI 801 (2); 802 (2); PEB 801 (3); 802 (3); 803 (3)                       = 13 Credits

Optional Courses:

                        PPP 801 (3); PEC 801 (3); 802 (3); 803 (3); PEB 805 (3)             = 6 Credits

                         Offer at least 6 Credits

                                                                                                            Total   =          38 Credits

  1. Plant Pathology option

Compulsory Courses:

                        PLB 801 (2); 802 (3); 803 (3); 804 (3); 805 (3); 840 (5)              = 19 Credits

Required Courses:

            SCI 801 (2); 802 (2); PPA 801 (3); 802 (3); 803 (3)                      = 13 Credits

Optional Courses:

                        PPA 804 (3); 805 (3); 806 (3); 807 (3); 808 (3); 809 (3)                = 6 Credits

                         Offer at least 6 Credits

                                                                                                            Total   =          38 Credits

  1. Plant Physiology option

Compulsory Courses:

                        PLB 801 (2); 802 (3); 803 (3); 804 (3); 805 (3); 840 (5)               = 19 Credits

Required Courses:

            SCI 801 (2); 802 (2); PPP 801 (3); 802 (3); 803 (3)                       = 13 Credits

Optional Courses:

                        PPP 804 (3); 805 (3); 806 (3); 807 (3)                                           = 6 Credits

                         Offer at least 6 Credits

                                                                                                            Total   =          38 Credits

  1. Plant Taxonomy option

Compulsory Courses:

                        PLB 801 (2); 802 (3); 803 (3); 804 (3); 805 (3); 840 (5)                 = 19 Credits

Required Courses:

            SCI 801 (2); 802 (2); PPT 801 (3); 802 (3); 803 (3)                       = 13 Credits

Optional Courses:

PPT 804 (3); 805 (3); 806 (3); 807 (3); 808 (3); 809 (3); 810 (3); 811 (3); 812 (3)   = 6 Credits

                        Offer at least 6 Credits

Total   =          38 Credits